AMDR Journal
Article Qr Code


ORIGINAL ARTICLE

DOI: 10.21276/amdr.2015.1.1.1
Cytogenetic Effects of Exposure to Formalin Vapours in Buccal and Nasal Mucosae: A Study in the Students of Anatomy and Embalmers

Jul-Dec 2015 | Vol 1 | Issue 1 | Page :1-5

Shekhawat S1, Jadon VS2, Garg R3, Mogra K4

1Senior Demonstrator, Department of Anatomy, 2Senior Resident, Department of Ophthalmology, J.L.N.Medical College,Ajmer, Rajasthan, INDIA. 3Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College & Research Centre, Moradabad, UP, INDIA. 4Senior Demonstrator, Department of Anatomy, Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar, Rajasthan, INDIA.

How to cite this article:Shekhawat S, Jadon VS, Garg R, Mogra K. Cytogenetic Effects of Exposure to Formalin Vapours in Buccal and Nasal Mucosae: A Study in the Students of Anatomy and Embalmers. Adv Med Dent Res 2015;Jul-Dec; 1(1); 1-5.

ABSTRACT

Presently formaldehyde has been classified as group I carcinogen to the human population by International agency for research on cancer, as its exposure has been associated with the nasal, nasopharyngeal, buccal carcinoma and leukemia. Formaldehyde on reaching DNA forms DNA-Protein crosslinks thereby causing chromosomal mutations and micronuclei formation. The micronucleus assay provides information of cytogenetic damage in tissues by these carcinogens. In present study the samples from buccal and nasal mucosae of 25 exposed and 25 non-exposed individuals were taken with the help of wooden spatula and cytopathology brush respectively. These samples were immediately smeared on the microscopic slides and fixed with ethyl alcohol and then stained with the Papanicolaou stain. After staining, slides were studied by the light microscope under 400X and 1000X magnification for the micronuclei and other effects causing genocytotoxicity. Our results show a significant increase in Micronuclei and Micronucleated cells frequency in exposed groups compared with the controls. A significant positive correlation between micronuclei frequencies and duration of exposure is found(r=0.7332 and p Value=0.00).

Keywords: : Buccal mucosa, Genotoxicity, Micronucleus, Formalin vapours.

REFERENCES
  1. Zhang L, Steinmaus C, Eastmond DA, Xin XK, and Smith MT: Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: A new meta-analysis and potential mechanisms. Mutat Res 2009, 681:150-168.
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer: Formaldehyde, 2- Butoxyethanol and 1-tert- Butoxypropan-2 ol. Lyon: IARC 2006.
  3. .Herausgegeben Von AS, Bernauer U, Madle S, Mielke H, Herbst U, Richter- Reichhelm HB, Appel KE, Gundert-Remy U: Assessment of the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde (CAS No. 50-00-00) Berlim: Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung 2006.
  4. Formaldehyde fact sheet, OSHA’s Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines Federal Register 1989;54: 3904-16.
  5. International Agency for Research on cancer: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of carcinogenic risks to Humans: Overall Evaluations of carcinogenicity. An update of IARC Monographs, Vols 1 to 42. Lyon IARC- 1987.
  6. Speit G, Schmid O; Local genotoxic effects of formaldehyde in human measured by micronucleus test with exfoliated epithelial cells. Mutat Res. 2006 Sep; 613(1): 1-9.
  7. P.E. Tolbert, C.M. Shy, J.W. Allen, Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in buccal smears: methods development, Mutat. Res 1992. 271, 69–77.)
  8. Susana Viegas, Carina Ladeira et al.; Genotoxic effects in occupational exposure to formaldehyde: A study in anatomy and pathology laboratories and formaldehyderesins production, Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 2010, 5:25.
  9. Suruda A, Schulte P, BoenigerM, Hayes RB, Livingston GK, Steenland K et al. Cytogenetic effects of formaldehyde exposure in students of mortuary science. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers 1993; 2: 453–460.
  10. Titenko-Holland N, Levine AJ, Smith MT, Quintana PJ, Boeniger M et al. Quantification of epithelial cell micronuclei by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in mortuary science students exposed to formaldehyde. Mutat Res 1996; 371: 237–248.
  11. Klintean Wunnapuk, Werawan Ruangyuttikarn; Increase in epithelial buccal cell micronuclei in students exposed to Embalming solution vapor; Chiang Mai Med J 2008;47(3):115-123.
  12. Holland N et al; The micronucleus assay in human buccal cells as a tool for biomonitoring DNA damage: The HUMN project perspective on current status and knowledge gaps, Mutat. Res.: Rev. Mutat. Res. 2008, doi:10.1016/ j.mrrev.2008.03.007
  13. C. Ladeira et al; Genotoxicity biomarkers in occupational exposure to formaldehyde—The case of histopathology laboratories; Mutation Research 2011;721; 15–20.
Download PDF     Print